In principle, an Australian resident is taxed on his or her global income, while a non-resident is taxed only on income from Australian sources. Both parties to the principle can increase taxation in more than one jurisdiction. In order to avoid double taxation of income through different legal systems, Australia has agreements with a number of other countries to avoid double taxation, in which the two countries agree on the taxes that will be paid to which country. In recent years [when?], the evolution of foreign investment by Chinese companies has increased rapidly and has developed quite influentially. As a result, cross-border tax treatment is becoming one of China`s major financial and commercial projects, and cross-border tax problems are growing. In order to solve these problems, multilateral tax treaties between countries that can legally help businesses on both sides avoid double taxation and find solutions to tax issues are put in place. In order to implement China`s “comprehensive” strategy and to help domestic companies adapt to globalization, China has committed to promoting and signing multilateral tax agreements with other countries in order to achieve common interests. At the end of November 2016, China officially signed 102 double taxation agreements. 98 of them have already come into force.
In addition, China has signed an agreement to avoid double taxation with Hong Kong and the Macao Special Administrative Region. China also signed an agreement in August 2015 to avoid double taxation with Taiwan, which has not yet entered into force. According to the Chinese tax administration, the first agreement to avoid double taxation was signed with Japan in September 1983. The last agreement was signed with Cambodia in October 2016. With regard to the situation of state disorganization, China would continue the agreement signed after the disruption. For example, in June 1987, China signed for the first time an agreement to avoid double taxation with the Socialist Republic of Czechoslovakia. In 1990, Czechoslovakia was divided into two countries, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, and the initial agreement with the Czechoslovakian Socialist Republic was continuously used in two new countries. In August 2009, China signed the new agreement with the Czech Republic. And when it comes to the particular case of Germany, China continued to conclude the agreement with the Federal Republic of Germany after the reunification of two Germanys.
China has signed an agreement with many countries to avoid double taxation. Among them, it is not only countries that have made significant investments in China, but also countries that, as beneficiaries well in relation to Chinese investments. In terms of the number of agreements, China is now only the United Kingdom. For countries that have not signed agreements to avoid double taxation with China, some of them have signed information exchange agreements with China.  The revised agreement on the prevention of double taxation between India and Cyprus, signed on 18 November 2016, provides for a tax at the source of capital gains resulting from the disposal of shares, not the taxation based on place of residence under the agreement on the prevention of double taxation, signed in 1994.